The Egyptian Tortoise: its natural history, its captive care, its beauty, its lore. . .
References and acknowledgments
kleinmanni home | golden beauties | desert life | climate's role | captive needs | unique diet | Captive Habitat 1: basics | Captive Habitat 2: habitat development | Breeding | hatchling care | when something goes wrong | natural and un-natural history | All in the family | captive behaviors | tortoise links | references


Arab, S. 1998. Medicine in ancient Egypt.

Baha el Din, S. 1994. Status of the Egyptian tortoise in Egypt.

Buskirk, J. 1990. The plight of Egyptian tortoise. Tortuga Gazette 26(6):7-8.

Conner, M. J. 1993. What's in a name. Tortuga Gazette 29 (1):5.

Conner, M. J. 1993. Testudo kleinmanni, Notes on Captive Husbandry. Tortuga Gazette 29 (1):5.

Ebers, G. M. 1875. Papyrus Ebers: facsimile with a partial translation. Leipzig.

Ebbell, B. 1937. The Papyrus Ebers: the greatest Egyptian Medical Document. Copenhagen.

Perala, J. 2001. A new species of Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the Middle East, with implications for conservation. The Journal of Herpetology 35(4):567-582.

Raffaele, F. Turtles and Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt.

Tabaka, et. al. Egyptian tortoise -- Testudo Kleinmanni. World Chelonian Trust.

van der Kuyl, et. al. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus Testudo (Testudinidae: Testudinidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences. University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Mol Phylogenet Evol 2000 to February; 22 (2):174-83.

Willemsen, R. E. 2002. Some differences in morphology between Greek, Italian, and Corsican tortoise populations.

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In addition to the scholars, authors, and researchers whose works I relied upon to prepare this website, I would like to offer particular thanks to several individuals. For photographs: friends Paula Elisabeth Morris, W. George Dever, and Lisa Weiss; Hamza Hawas, of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities; Robert Raggozino of Stearman World Flight; and Lawrence Uribe of Botanicals Unlimited. For generous permissions, advice, and research pointers: Joe Heinen, Darrell Senneke, Bill Ablaschai, and Jarmo Perala.

Any oversights, omissions, errors of judgment or content, or other quirks of this website are entirely my responsibility and in no way reflect on the knowledge and kindnesses of those whose research and wisdom encouraged me in the assembly of this website.

"You can't trample infidelswhen you're a tortoise.I mean, all you could do isgive them a meaningful look."

-- Terry Pratchett, "Small Gods"

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All information and photos used in these pages is protected by copyright. Photos not taken by myself are credited; texts are fully noted and references included on the final page.  Use other than personal of the information or photos presented here requires my express written consent and / or that of the original author or photographer of the materials, and can be initiated by contacting me through this link. Any such use without such express written consents will be subject to legal action.

The Egyptian Tortoise: its natural history, its captive care, its beauty, its lore. . .
Fred L. Erwin, Jr., 2004 - 2006 C.E.